Kabul is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan. Located on a narrow valley along the Kabul River in the Hindu Kush Mountains, Kabul is also the commercial and cultural center of the country. Due to its strategic location on the trade routes of South and Central Asia with its 3,500-year history, Kabul has been the battleground of many states throughout history. The Russian invasion of 1978 and the American invasion of 2001 are recent examples of this.
Known to have been founded in the 1500s BC, Kabul became one of the most important cities of Asia in the 6th and 7th centuries. It came under the rule of the Mongols in the 13th century, and in 1504, the founder of the Mughal Empire, Babur, made Kabul the capital. Kabul remained under the rule of the Mughal Empire until it was captured by the Iranian shah Nadir Shah in 1738.
In 1747, Ahmad Shah established the first independent state of Afghanistan in Kabul. The city was captured by the British twice during the First Anglo-Afghan War (1838-1842) and the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-1880).
In 1978, Kabul was occupied by the USSR and in 1988 the Russians had to withdraw from the city. In 2011, the United States occupied the capital, Kabul, on the pretext that Osama Bin Laden was organizing in Afghanistan and on the grounds of the September 11 attacks.
Where Is Kabul?
Kabul; It is located in the eastern part of Afghanistan, in a narrow valley along the Kabul River in the Hindu Kush Mountains.
When To Go To Kabul?
The continental climate is effective in the city of Kabul. In the city, winters are severely cold and summers are extremely hot. Precipitation usually occurs in February, March and April. Frosts occur in December, January and February. Average air temperature in January, the coldest month – 7 degrees; The hottest month is 30 degrees in July. The ideal time to go to Kabul; It is the spring and autumn months when the seasonal conditions are more favorable.
Trip To Kabul
Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan with a long history of 3,500 years; With its gardens, walls, historical palaces, mosques and castles, it is one of the most interesting stops in Asia.
There are many places to visit in Kabul. The most famous among them are Mughal Gardens, Bala Hisar, Kabul Zoo, Id Gah Mosque, Timur Shah Mausoleum, Afghanistan National Museum, Afghanistan National Art Gallery, Afghanistan National Archives, OMAR Mine Museum, British Cemetery, Abdul Rahman Mosque, Pegman Gardens, Darul Aman Palace is the Qargha Reservoir.
Gardens Of Babur
The historical garden of Kabul, the Mughal Gardens, was built around the sarcophagus of Babur, the founder and first ruler of the Mughal Empire. The planning of the gardens, which were built in 1528, belonged to Babur, and all his plans were revealed in Baburname. Babur said that he wanted to be buried in the Mughal Gardens in the last days of his life, but he was first buried in Agra, India, and then the sarcophagus was moved here.
Address: Kabul, Afghanistan
Bala Hisar, estimated to have been built in the 5th century AD, is located to the south of the modern city center behind the Kuh-e-Sherdarwaza Mountain. Its 6-meter-high and 4-meter-thick walls start from Mount Kuh-e-Sherdarwaza and extend to the river. Bala Hisar witnessed the bloodiest fighting during the First Anglo-Afghan War (1838-1842) and the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-1880) in Afghanistan. Today, the ruins of Bala Hisar are one of the most visited tourist spots in Kabul.
The Kabul Zoo was opened in 1967 on the banks of the Kabul River. The zoo is home to more than 100 animals. The Chinese government made donations when the zoo was just opened, but stopped donating after some animals died due to bad conditions.
Address: Asmayi Rd, Kabul, Afghanistan
Id Gah Mosque
Id Gah Mosque is the second largest mosque in Kabul. During Ramadan and Eid al-Adha, one million people perform Eid prayers here. For this reason, the Id Gah Mosque is considered the main mosque of Kabul. The mosque is located in the east of the city, near the National Stadium and Mahmut Han Bridge. The Mosque, built in the Mughal architectural style, is quite magnificent.
Afghanistan National Museum (Kabul Museum)
The National Museum of Afghanistan is an archaeological museum located 9 kilometers southwest of the city center. The museum was founded in 1922 by the Emir of Afghanistan, Emanullah Khan. The archaeological artifacts and numismatic collection exhibited in the National Museum of Afghanistan, one of the most important museums in Asia, is very interesting.
Address: Darulaman Rd, Kabul, Afghanistan
Afghanistan National Art Gallery
The National Art Gallery of Afghanistan is housed in a carefully restored old Kabul house. Approximately 900 oil paintings and portraits are exhibited in the gallery collection. Most of his collection consists of European, Afghan landscapes, portraits of famous Afghan kings and writers. The gallery also contains a portrait of the French writer Victor Hugo.
Address: Asamayi Watt, Kabul, Afghanistan
Afghanistan National Archives
The National Archives of Afghanistan was established in 1890. The archive is located in the building that Abdurrahman Han had built for his son in the late 1800s. In the archive containing more than 15,000 documents; The 1919 agreement in which Britain gave full independence to Afghanistan is also exhibited. Old documents, newspapers, period photographs and old banknotes are also exhibited in the archive; You can also see the Timurid letters from the 14th century and the old Qur’an from the Durranids.
Address: Salang Watt, Kabul, Afghanistan
OMAR Mine Museum
About 53 different types of mines that have been used in Afghanistan for years are exhibited at the OMAR Mine Museum. Organized by Doctor Shah Veli, the Museum is only visited by appointment for security purposes. There are also unexploded munitions used in the Afghanistan War in the museum.
Address: Teppe Maranjan, Kabul, Afghanistan
Transportation In Kabul
There is no developed urban transportation network in Kabul. City transportation is provided by bus and taxi. You can also explore the city center of Kabul on foot. It will be easier for you to obtain a map of Kabul from the website of the Afghanistan information center (Afghanistan Information Management Services).
The bus is the most frequently used means of transportation in Kabul. Buses are faster, more comfortable and modern than taxis. However, the itinerary and numbers are written in the local language, so they are not understandable to foreigners.
Tourists generally prefer taxis for transportation in Kabul. Most taxi drivers speak English at an entry level. However, it is still recommended to write down your destination on a piece of paper in the local language and give it to the taxi driver.
Kabul International Airport is located approximately 1 kilometer west of the city centre. You can reach the center by walking from the airport.
You can reach the center in a very short time by taxis waiting outside the passenger terminal.
Afghan cuisine is mainly meat and rice. People prefer to use bread instead of cutlery while eating. There are three main types of bread: naan, obi non and lavash. Naan, which is thin, oval, long and white bread, is cooked with opium or sesame. Obi non, which is Uzbek bread, is thinner than naan and has a disc shape. Lavash is the thinnest and is used especially when eating meat dishes.
Rice cooked in different styles in Afghanistan shows the welfare level of families. Rich families eat rice for one meal every day. Pilaf is indispensable for weddings. Chalao is a kind of stew made with half-boiled white rice. Yakhni Palao, Zamarod Palao, Qorma Palao and Bore Palao are different kinds of rice made with different ingredients.
Shopping In Kabul
Afghanistan’s richest and largest city, the capital, Kabul, has many options for shopping. Big shopping malls where you can find everything you are looking for from clothing products to electronic products; “Kabul City Center” on Zargona Street are “Majid Mall”, “Roshan Plaza”, “Spinneys”, “Gul Bahar Center” and “Maryam Shopping Center”.
Hand-woven and leather products are the best souvenirs to buy from Kabul. You can also visit the open-air markets set up several days a week in the city center.
In Kabul, which does not have a very colorful night life, there are a few places where visitors and people of the city have fun. Alcohol, although illegal, is readily available in restaurants. L’atmosphere and Deutscher Hof are some of these restaurants.
- Now Roz (Spring Festival): March
- Sound Central Music Festival: May
- Afghanistan International Human Rights Film Festival: December
- Ramadan Feast: It Changes Every Year
- Eid-Al-Adha: It Changes Every Year.
Kabul Public Holidays
- Islamic New Year – February
- Now Roz – March
- Revolution Day – 29 April
- Mevlit Kandili – Changes Every Year
- Labor Day – May 1
- Afghan Independence Day – 19 August
- Ramadan Feast – Changes Every Year
- Eid-Al-Adha – Changes Every Year
Kabul Useful Information
- Police: 119
- Ambulance: 102
- Fire Brigade: 119